The cultivation of palm oil has expanded quickly in Campeche under a model of small-scale peasant landholdings, with the intention of turning the state into the main producer of palm oil in Mexico. Campeche’s territory has a high degree of biological conservation and the expansion of palm oil cultivation is controversial because of its environmental and social impacts. We present the case study of the ejido Independencia in order to explore the perspective of the peasants and the impacts generated by the palm oil plantations. In general, the peasants have a positive vision of palm oil as a source of income and employment, but they do not perceive that it has improved the living conditions of the community. The peasants perceive environmental benefits associated with the plantations of palm oil through the reforestation of plots and the recovery of biodiversity.